The city of Bandung has been the first city to take on this issue, as well as the first city to undergo FIHRRST's project.
In Indonesia, the idea of human rights mainstreaming at the local level has been introduced since the turn of the millennium in line with the significant increase in terms of awareness of human rights. In Bandung, the idea gained momentum in concert with the 60th Anniversary of the Asia-Africa Conference, in April 2015, when the Mayor of Bandung clearly expressed his intention to sign a Bandung Declaration of a Human Rights City.
Throughout their history, the citizens of Gwangju stood up against the exploitation of the central government through Donghak Peasant Movement (1894-95), insisting on their rights to equality. Under the Japanese Occupation in the 20th century, the citizens played a major role in the pro-independence movement such as Gwangju Student Independence Movement in 1929.
Even after the independence from Japanese rule on 15 August 1945, the citizens of Gwangju did not stop their demands for basic human rights. They stood up on 18 May 1980, raising their voices against the dire situation where their political, socio-economic freedom had been taken away by the military junta.
In order to contribute to the international promotion of the right to the city, the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) Committee on Social Inclusion, Participatory Democracy and Human Rights drafted the Global Charter-Agenda for Human Rights in the City, an initiative that emerged from the Local Authorities Forum for Social Inclusion and Participatory Democracy (FAL) that took place in Caracas (Venezuela) in 2006. Based on the discussions between local governments from around the world that took place in this Forum, a group of experts from various countries wrote an initial draft of the Charter-Agenda (2007-2008), which was then discussed and amended by elected representatives, experts and representatives of civil society from all over the world (2009-2010).
Under the initial leadership of the Barcelona Provincial Council (Diputació de Barcelona) and subsequently the city of Nantes and the Pays de la Loire Region, the Global Charter-Agenda has been collectively discussed
The Mexico City Charter for the Right to the City is the product of an initiative developed by a diverse group of organizations of the urban popular movement and negotiated with the Federal District (Mexico City) government beginning in 2007.
In October of that year, in accordance with an agreement reached with the Head of Government, Marcelo Ebrard Casaubón, a meeting was held with the heads of several city ministries to present the strategic foundations of the Charter, along with the previous documents leading up to the Charter, and outlining the first steps for its formulation.
Within the framework of the Mexican Chapter of the World Social Forum held in Mexico City’s central plaza (the “Zócalo”) in late January 2008,
The Montréal Charter of Rights and Responsibilities, in force since 1 January 2006, covers the main sectors of municipal activity: democratic, economic, social and cultural life, recreation, physical activities and sports, environment and sustainable development, security and municipal services.
The Montréal Charter also establishes a right of initiative allowing citizens to obtain public consultations on matters under city or borough jurisdiction.
In 2010-2011, the Montréal Charter underwent a first revision
Since the first World Social Forum, held in 2001 in Porto Alegre, Brazil, several popular movements, NGOs, professional associations, national and international forums and networks of civil society have assumed the challenge of building a sustainable model of society and urban life based on the principles of solidarity, freedom, equality, dignity, and social justice, whereby one of the key bases must be the respect to the different urban cultures and a balance between urban and rural space.
The World Charter on the Right to the City, signed in 2004 after the Social Forum of the Americas, held in Quito, Ecuador, in 2004, and the World Urban Forum, held in Barcelona, Spain, in 2004, is an instrument designed to
The European Charter for the Safeguarding of Human Rights in the City (Saint-Denis, 2000) is the result of the preparatory work initiated in Barcelona in 1998 in the framework of the Conference “Cities for Human Rights”, which was organised to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Hundreds of Mayors and political representatives participated in the event and united their voice to call for a stronger political acknowledgement as key actors in safeguarding human rights in a highly urbanized world.
Participating cities adopted the “Barcelona Engagement”, consisting of a roadmap to draft a political document aimed at fostering the respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights at the local level.